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Tannin and the Myths and Rumors revolving around it
作者:    发布于:2015-10-22 17:26:27    文字:【】【】【

Tannin is considered to be one of the most important components of red wine. But what is tannin exactly, how does it get into our wine and how does it affect it?
毋庸置疑,丹宁酸被认为是红葡萄酒中最重要的一个组成部分。但是怎样的丹宁才是好的?他在酒中怎样产生,并影响我们的红酒呢?
Even long before the grape has reached its ripeness, tannin is already present. The vines, grape stems, seeds and skin are all rich in tannin. The grape pulp itself, however, contains almost no tannin at all. During the processing of white wine the grapes are pressed just after the harvest, therefore, when we talk about tannins in wine we are almost exclusively talking about red wine. Red wines are fermented with the grape skins and red wine grape varieties also contain generally more tannin than the white counterpart. In conclusion, the amount of tannin inside a grape strongly depends on the grape variety. Cabernet-Sauvignon for instance has a thick skin which is very rich in tannin.
其实早在葡萄成熟之前,丹宁已经存在了。葡萄藤,葡萄茎,葡萄仔甚至葡萄皮中都有丹宁的身影。不过葡萄果肉本身中几乎不存在丹宁,所以我们谈论的只是红葡萄酒,而把需要经过处理而酿造的白葡萄酒暂且剔除。红葡萄酒的酿造是连同果皮一起的,所以正常情况下红葡萄酒的丹宁普遍高于白葡萄酒。葡萄中的丹宁多寡完全取决于葡萄的品种。比如赤霞珠葡萄果皮厚实,它的丹宁就自然充足。

It is up to the winemaker to use the tannin in a way that it influences the wine’s taste positively. A long fermentation process with a high temperature will extract the most amount of tannin from the grape skin. However, tannin is responsible for that dry flavor that leaves your mouth feeling dehydrated. This characteristic is called astringency and is caused by the tannin, which is a polyphenolic compound, binding the protein in your saliva. Needless to say, it can make your wine hard to swallow. Because tannin also has great preservatives properties, it is often praised for giving wine a great aging potential. However, it is less of a potential than a necessity because as the wine ages the tannin levels drop, which might otherwise be too high for the wine to be enjoyable.
酿酒师酿造葡萄酒时丹宁绝对是影响葡萄酒质量的一个关键。长时间的高温发酵将最大程度的提取葡萄皮中的丹宁。丹宁会让你的口中有干燥脱水的感觉,这种特性被称之为收敛性。因为丹宁酸是一种多酚类的化合物,会与唾液中的蛋白质发生化学反应。丹宁可能会让你觉得葡萄酒难以下咽,但是它拥有非常强大的抗氧化能力,我们熟知葡萄酒有防衰老,抗氧化的功效,其中绝对有丹宁酸的军功章。当然也不用太过于担心丹宁酸过高会影响品尝葡萄酒,随着时间的流逝,酒中的丹宁酸会逐渐减弱。

 

Everyone has heard the rumor that doctors recommend one glass of red wine a day to prevent illness or prolong life and all kinds of health magazines and websites like to claim the miraculous properties of tannin. While it is true that red wine has health benefits and tannin can reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, have anti-inflammatory properties (prevent infections) and slow down tumor growths, it is also true that tannin is somewhat toxic, can cause an upset intestine and stomach and should therefore not be consumed excessively. Especially if you suffer from an iron or calcium deficiency you should ease down on the tannin since it prevents your body from absorbing these minerals properly.
每个人都听过葡萄酒与健康有关的传闻,医生经常建议大家每天一杯葡萄酒,而各种健杂志和网站也经常宣传丹宁的神奇功效。确实,红酒有益健康,丹宁酸可以降低心血管疾病的风险,有消炎 (预防感染)和减缓肿瘤的生长的功效。不过丹宁有毒素也是不可否认的事实,可能会导致肠胃产生溃疡,因此不宜摄入过多。尤其是如果你体内缺铁或者缺钙,应该尽量避免或减少丹宁的摄入,因为它会影响你对这些微量元素的吸收。
Tannins prove once again that our world is not painted black and white. Aside from red wine, tea, nuts, beans, chocolate, coffee etc. are all a great source of tannins. I have stumbled over many websites and articles attributing all kinds of beautiful and miraculous effects to the consumption of tannin but in the end they are all trying to sell you something. If you look further into the matter you will find a more ambivalent and differentiated view on the subject. Tannin is bitter for a reason, which is so that you don’t consume too much of it. And to me, that is the true beauty of how Mother Nature works.
丹宁再次告诉我们世界上任何东西都不是非黑即白的绝对。除了红葡萄酒,茶,坚果,豆类,巧克力和咖啡中都含有丰富的丹宁。我发现很多网站,杂志文章都大肆宣传丹宁神奇强大的功效,而他们最终的目的就是向你推销某些产品。而如果你进一步深入了解,会发现有他们的说法中有很多矛盾,甚至对立。丹宁的苦涩可能是有些人对它敬而远之的原因。但对我来说,这正是大自然孕育出的多姿多彩的奇妙之处。

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